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 مراجعة عامة في الانجليزية 3 ثانوي

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MessageSujet: مراجعة عامة في الانجليزية 3 ثانوي   Jeu Sep 30, 2010 11:11 pm

I/ SPELLING


Nouns, verbs and adjectives can have the
following
endings :


Noun+ s/es (plural)

Books, ideas, matches

Verb+ s/es (after he, she, it)

Works, enjoys, washes

Verb+ ing

Working, enjoying, washing

Verb+ ed

Worked, enjoyed, washed

Adjective+ er (comparative)

Cheaper, quicker, brighter

Adjective+ est (superlative)

Cheapest, quickest, brightest

Adjective+ ly (adverb)

Cheaply, quickly, brightly


When we use these endings, there are sometimes
changes
in spelling:




  • Nouns

    and verbs +s/ es




The
ending is (es) when the word
ends in s, ss, sh, ch, x.


Example: bus/ buses miss/ misses wash/ washes
match/ matches box/ boxes




  • words
    ending in (y) like baby, carry, easy:




if a word ends in a consonant + (by,
ry, sy, vy, …):


(Y)
changes to (ie) before the ending (s):

Baby/ babies story/ stories try/ tries
country/ countries

(Y) changes to (i) before the ending (ed):

Hurry/ hurried study/studied apply/ applied

(Y)
changes to (i) before the endings (er and
est)

Easy/ easier, easiest lucky/ luckier, luckiest

(Y)
changes to (i) before the ending (ly)

Easy/ easily heavy/ heavily







  • (Y)
    does not change
    before (ing): hurriying tryinf

  • (Y)
    does not change if the word ends in a vowel + y (ay, ey, oy, uy)







An exception is : day/ daily, lay/
laid say/ said


Doubling
consonants: Sometimes, a word ends in
a vowel + a consonant like in:


Stop, plan, wet, thin, slip, prefer, regret


Before the endings (ing, ed, er, est), we
double the
consonant:


Stop_stopped,
stopping; thin_ thinner, thinnest.


BUT we do not double (y) or (w) at the
end
of words: stay_stayed; grow_
growing.





II/SYLLABLE DIVISION/
SOME RULES





  • one
    syllable word is never divides: example: ill

  • when
    the word has a prefix, divide the word
    between the root and the prefix:
    eg: mis/use

  • when
    the word has a suffix, divide between the
    root and the suffix: fee/ly

  • when
    two consonants come between two vowels, the word is divided after
    the
    first consonant: of/ten

  • when
    a consonant comes between two vowels, the
    word is divided before the
    consonant: mu/sic

  • when
    two vowels come together and are pronounced
    separately, the word is
    divided between the two vowels: radi/o

  • when
    a vowel is sounded alone in a word, it
    forms a syllable: e/vent
















III/ STRESS :
a stressed syllable is part of a
word that is pronounced longer and
louder than the other parts.




  • Most
    of 2 syllabic words are stressed on the
    first syllable if it is not a
    prefix.




Example: open, winter precious


BUT : begin, forget,
believe, resume, occur, alarm,
result, again, perhaps,
event, advice




  • Most
    of 3 syllabic words are stressed on the
    first syllable of the root:




Example: difficult, organise,
sensitive


BUT:
remember together
professor






All words ending
in ‘ion’ are stressed on the
syllable before the last:


Example: division, examination,
tradition, revolution, illusion





IV/ REPORTED SPEECH


1/ REPORTED STATEMENTS:


When the reporting verb is in the present,
there is
no change in tense:


“ I’m a
teacher.” She says
that she is a teacher.
Here, we’ve used the present simple in both sentences
because the
reporting verb (say) is in the present.


BUT: When the reporting verb is in the past,
there are
always corresponding tenses to the ones used in the direct speech
simply
because we don’t report what happens but what happened.


Example:


“I am a
teacher”. She said
that she was a teacher.



Present simple

Past
simple

Present
continuous

Past continuous

Present
perfect simple

Past perfect simple

Present
perfect continuous

Past perfect continuous

Past
simple

Past perfect

Past continuous

Past
perfect continuous

Past perfect

Past perfect (no possible
change)

Past
perfect continuous

Past perfect continuous (no
possible change)





Other verb forms also change:


will

Would

can

Could

must

Had to

shall

Should

may

Might





Time and place references:


now

then

today

That
day

here

There

this

That

tomorrow

The
following day, the next day, the day
after

Next week

The
following week, the next week, the week
after

yesterday

The
previous day, the day before

Last week

The previous week, the week
before

A
week ago

A week before

tonight

That
night

Last
Sunday

The previous Sunday, the Sunday
before


2/ REPORTED QUESTIONS


a) “WH” QUESTIONS:


After the reporting verb, we :
first, rewrite the
“wh” word



Second: rewrite the subject



Third:
rewrite the verb in the corresponding tense if the reporting verb
is
in the past.


b)
YES/
NO”
QUESTIONS:



After the
reporting verb, we: first:
write if or whether




Second:
write the subject




Third: write the verb in
the corresponding tense.


3/
REPORTED INSTRUCTIONS AND REQUESTS/
ORDERS



a)
Affirmative
commands:
to + STEM



b)

Negative commands: not
to + STEM



V/ PASSIVE TENSES




  • Present
    Simple : is or are + past participle




Eg: Computers are shipped to many
countries.




  • Present
    Continuous: is/are + being + past
    participle




The food
is being prepared.


* Past
Simple: was/ were + past
participle


Eg: The package was delivered
yesterday.




  • Past
    continuous : was/ were + being +

    past participle




Eg:
The house was being painted when
I arrived.




  • Present
    Perfect Simple : has/ have + been + past
    participle




Eg:
Over 20 models have been
produced.




  • Past
    Perfect Simple: had + been + past participle




Eg: We had been given visas for
three months.




  • Modals
    (can, may…) modal + be + past participle




Eg: The computer can be used.


VI/ CONDIRIONAL
SENTENCES



1/ IF CLAUSES


TYPE ONE: if + Present Simple, Future


Eg: If you don’t go to the doctor soon, the
problem
will get worse.


TYPE TWO: if
+
Past Simple, would + infinitive


Eg:
If I had time, I would call him.


TYPE
THREE
: if + Past Perfect, would have +
past participle


Eg: If I hadn’t called, I wouldn’t have known
about
the meeting.





2/
THE USE OF “UNLESS”



Unless
+ affirmative verb is similar to if +
negative verb.


Eg: unless I hurry, I will miss the bus = If I
don’t
hurry, I will miss the bus.
































VII/
PRONUNCIATION OF
THE FINAL “s”





  • The
    final “s” is pronounced /s/ after: t, p, k,
    f, th( ث)

  • The
    final “s”
    is pronounced /z/ after: d, b, g, m, n, r, v, l, th (ذ)

  • The
    final “s” is pronounced /iz/ after: sh, ch,
    s, z, ge, dge




VIII/
PRONUNCIATION OF
FINAL “ed”





  • The
    final “ed” is pronounced /id/ after: t, d

  • The
    final “ed” is pronounced /d/ after: b, g, v,
    ge, dge, z, m, n, w, l, r, y,
    th

  • The
    final “ed” is pronounced /t/ after: p, k, f,
    sh, ch.




IX/
PLURAL



General rule: singular + s
(girl__girls)




  • nouns
    ending in s, z, x, sh, ch: add es
    (box__boxes)

  • nouns

    ending in a consonant + y: y changes to (i) and add es (spy__spies)

  • nouns
    ending in f/ fe: change f/fe to (v) and
    add es (life__lives)








X/ RELATIVE CLAUSES


WHO/ WHICH/ THAT: when subject of
the relative
clause, I cannot omit them.


Eg: We know a lot of people who live
in London. Here, “ who” is subject and it can’t
be omitted.


When these relative pronouns are
object of the
relative clause, they can be
omitted.


Eg: The woman (who) I wanted to see
was away on
vacation. Here, “who” is object and it can be omitted.


WHOSE is used instead of his, her,
their





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( رسالة sms ) : اكتب هنا ماتشاء دون ان تحذف الاكواد

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MessageSujet: Re: مراجعة عامة في الانجليزية 3 ثانوي   Mer Oct 06, 2010 10:02 pm

بارك الله فيك
شكرا
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النـخبة
النـخبة



( رسالة sms ) : 1 .2 .3 ViVa L'AlGeRiE

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MessageSujet: Re: مراجعة عامة في الانجليزية 3 ثانوي   Jeu Oct 07, 2010 7:02 pm

شكـــــــــرا
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